Security Council meeting 5229-Resu.1

Date20 July 2005
S-PV-5229-Resu.1 2005-07-20 15:00 20 July 2005 [[20 July]] [[2005]] /

Briefings by Chairman of subsidiary bodies of the Security Council Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and associated individuals and entities Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning counter-terrorism Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004)

The meeting was suspended at 1.15 p.m. and resumed at 3.05 p.m.
The President

I should like to inform the Council that I have received a letter from the representative of Pakistan, in which he requests to be invited to participate in the discussion of the item on the Council’s agenda. In conformity with the usual practice, I propose, with the consent of the Council, to invite that representative to participate in the discussion without the right to vote, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Charter and rule 37 of the Council’s provisional rules of procedure.

There being no objection, it is so decided.

At the invitation of the President, Mr. Akram (Pakistan) took the seat reserved for him at the side of the Council Chamber.
The President

I wish to remind all speakers to limit their statements to no more than five minutes in order to enable the Council to carry out its work expeditiously. Delegations with lengthy statements are kindly requested to circulate their texts in writing and to deliver a condensed version when speaking in the Chamber.

As a measure to optimize the use of our time, I will not individually invite speakers to take seats at the table or to resume their seats at the side of the Chamber. When a speaker is taking the floor, the Conference Officer will seat the next speaker on the list at the table. I thank representatives for their understanding and cooperation.

The next speaker inscribed on my list is the representative of the Syrian Arab Republic, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Mekdad (Syria)

I congratulate you, Sir, and your friendly country on your accession to the presidency of the Council for this month. We are fully confident that your efforts and leadership of our work will enhance the role of the Council in maintaining international peace and security.

At the outset, my delegation reiterates that the people and Government of Syria condemn the bloody act of terrorism that took place in London, the murder of the Egyptian ambassador to Iraq and the acts of terrorism that took the lives of Turkish citizens in Istanbul. We extend our sincerest condolences to those countries and reconfirm our resolve to strengthen international cooperation in putting an end to the scourge of terrorism.

We also thank Ambassador Løj, Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001); Mr. Mayoral, Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999); and Mr. Motoc, Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004). We thank them for their work in skilfully steering the deliberations of the aforementioned Committees.

Syria has suffered the scourge of terrorism for decades. In recent weeks, Syrian security forces have uncovered a terrorist network seeking to carry out acts of terrorism inside and outside our country. In their pursuit of those terrorist elements in the border region between Syria and Lebanon, Syrian security forces have detained 37 members of those networks who sought to terrorize our citizens and to destabilize our country. A number of those security forces were killed.

Syria was one of the first countries to call for stronger international counter-terrorism efforts. Since 1985 Syria has called for an international conference under United Nations auspices to define terrorism, to mount an effective international counter-terrorism strategy and to distinguish terrorism from the legitimate struggle of all peoples under occupation to liberate themselves, which is a right guaranteed by international norms and instruments. After terrorist attacks were carried out against a number of countries to destabilize them, Syria once again called for an international counter-terrorism strategy and reiterated its offer to cooperate with all relevant international and regional organizations to enhance the security and legal frameworks for putting an end to international terrorism.

My delegation has noted with great interest that the Counter-Terrorism Committee has always been guided by the principles of cooperation, transparency and equal treatment in its revitalization efforts. In mid-April Syria presented its fourth report to the Committee in accordance with paragraph 6 of resolution 1373 (2001). The report was issued as an official document of the Security Council (S/2005/265, annex).

Moreover, my delegation welcomes the cooperation and coordination between the Committee and its Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED). We hope that the CTED will be able to begin its work as soon as possible. That will promote capacity-building and the provision of technical assistance to help States prepare their reports in a timely manner and in a way that will promote the implementation of Security Council resolutions.

In order to strengthen the legal framework for combating terrorism, the President of the Syrian Arab Republic issued legislative decree 33, dated 1 May 2005, concerning money-laundering and the financing of terrorism. Syria also acceded to international counter-terrorism conventions in accordance with decree 5, dated 3 April 2005. Thus Syria has acceded to most international conventions aimed at combating terrorism, and we are considering ratifying the remaining ones.

The Syrian delegation believes that the successful visit to several Member States by Mr. Cesar Mayoral, Chairman of the 1267 Committee, and members of the Committee last May represents an important effort to strengthen international cooperation and understanding in the area of counter-terrorism. In some of the meetings that took place, Syrian officials shared their views with Mr. Mayoral on enhancing cooperation in the area of counter-terrorism, focusing in particular on Syria’s experience in the 1980s as a result of the terrorist acts that threatened our national security. Mr. Mayoral’s delegation also noted that a number of measures have been undertaken by Syrian authorities in various areas, particularly with regard to our borders with neighbouring countries.

We have always stressed the importance of international cooperation in combating terrorism. Syria has reached agreements in that regard with a number of countries, including members of the Security Council. That has greatly contributed to the sharing of security information in order to combat this international threat. Thus it is important to recognize Syria’s efforts in this area.

Everyone agrees that weapons of mass destruction and their proliferation continue to pose a threat to international peace and security. The best way to eliminate that threat is to totally eradicate such weapons. That requires a concerted international effort, led by the United Nations and utilizing the multilateral disarmament machinery.

Syria shares the international community’s concern that weapons of mass destruction may get into the hands of terrorists and non-State actors. Therefore, we have submitted our national report on the implementation of resolution 1540 (2004). We hope that the Security Council will consider the draft resolution that we submitted before our membership ended in 2003 aimed at establishing a zone free of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East, given that such weapons pose an imminent threat to international peace and security in the region and throughout the world.

Syria stresses its full cooperation with the Counter-Terrorism Committee through the implementation of resolution 1540 (2004) and through my Government’s submission of our national reports to the Committee. We emphasize that the Committee must serve as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, multilateral and international conventions related to weapons control and the elimination of weapons.

Here, I would like to point out that coordination and cooperation among the three Security Council committees are very important in the struggle against terrorism. Such coordination and cooperation enhance the work of the Committees and lighten the burden on countries, particularly with regard to the writing of reports, since there is less duplication of information as a result. We are fully confident that the Security Council will take the necessary measures in this area.

The fight against international terrorism concerns all of the world’s countries, because terrorism is a scourge that we all face; it crosses all cultures, borders and civilizations. I reiterate once again that Syria, as always, will be at the forefront of the international fight against this threat.

The President

I thank the representative of the Syrian Arab Republic for the kind words he addressed to me and to my country.

I now call on the representative of Israel.

Mr. Gillerman (Israel)

We would like to congratulate you, Sir, on the convening of this very important meeting. We would also like to commend you for the leadership you have demonstrated during your presidency of the Security Council for the month of July. The fight against terrorism is unquestionably one of the most urgent issues facing the world today. Your guidance in today’s discussion will no doubt prove invaluable.

In that context, I have noted with great interest the news that Syria has arrested some terrorists. I have also noted that country’s very selective mode of arresting terrorists, on the one hand, and its wholehearted harbouring of them, on the other.

Israel would like to take this opportunity to extend its deep and sincere condolences to the people of the United Kingdom in the wake of the terrorist attacks that recently struck it so brutally. Our sympathies and prayers are with the families of the victims of that attack, and we wish a speedy recovery to the survivors.

Israel itself is mourning the death of six of its own citizens this week. They were murdered in two terrorist attacks, both of which took place within a week of the tragedies in London. Israel is, unfortunately, keenly aware of the devastating effects of terrorism, and we once again reaffirm our resolve to work together with others to confront terrorists and their sponsors, wherever they may be. I would also like to express our condolences to the people of Turkey, Egypt, Iraq and India, all of whom have experienced the evils of terror in recent weeks. Those terrorist attacks prove once again that terrorism knows no boundaries and is indeed a global problem. Further, those attacks again bring to the fore the urgent need for the international community to reinvigorate its fight against terrorism.

Israel believes that the unprecedented increase in global cooperation and information-sharing that has occurred since the attacks of 11 September 2001 is a very important step in the fight against terrorism and a reason for great encouragement. On a daily basis, the global community makes advances in enhancing security and in combating terrorism.

In that context, Israel views the meeting of the Counter-Terrorism Committee, the Al-Qaida Committee and the 1540 Committee as important steps in the global fight against terrorism. Israel commends the Committees for the valuable progress they have made in increasing the capacity of States that are willing but unable to confront terrorism. We hope that similar progress will be made with States that are able but unwilling to confront terrorism.

Despite clear calls from the Security Council detailing the responsibility of States to refrain from supporting and to act against terrorists, there are still States that view terrorism as a way of waging their own wars by proxy. The same resolve we direct against the terrorists must be directed against those States that allow terrorists to act unencumbered and unimpeded.

There is an urgent need to address those factors that create the atmosphere in which terrorists can hide, recruit new members and operate. In particular, issues of radicalization, glorification of martyrdom and incitement require urgent and concerted attention, especially in the light of the increasingly common phenomena of suicide terrorism and of terrorists who have been born and raised in the very societies in which they commit their atrocities.

Israel is pleased to note the growing, indeed almost universal, recognition that the fight against terrorism cannot be held hostage to any so-called root causes. There can be no attempt to justify or excuse the use of terrorism. Israel commends the Secretary-General for his forthright rejection of such attempts in his counter-terrorism strategy.

On that subject, Israel is concerned that, although the “Millennium + 5” draft outcome document rejects terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, it also lists factors that may contribute to terrorism. That list compromises the efficacy of the draft outcome document’s statements on terror.

Israel also attaches the utmost importance to effective counter-terrorism legislation and multilateral legal instruments. We are actively sharing our experiences in this sphere. Israel is party to nine counter-terrorism conventions, and we are working to join others. We also support the goal of concluding a comprehensive convention on terrorism during the sixtieth session of the General Assembly. The goal of concluding such a convention should not, however, be seen as an end in and of itself, but rather as a means to an effective international counter-terrorism strategy. Accordingly, as much as we wish to see the comprehensive convention concluded at the earliest opportunity, it should not come at the cost of diluting the principles that stand to make it an effective tool in the fight against terrorism.

Israel is pleased to note that multilateral forums — most recently the Group of Eight summit and the meeting of the group of five European interior ministers — continue to close the gaps in the international counter-terrorism web. As a result of these and similar efforts, international terrorist networks are suffering significant setbacks. Nevertheless, terrorist groups are quick to exploit any gaps that might appear in international resolve and cooperation.

One such gap is the increasing tendency to seek contact with leaders of terrorist organizations on the ground that they are political and/or democratically elected leaders. Let there be no mistake about it: terrorist organizations are cunningly adopting a new modus operandi of political involvement in a cynical attempt to exploit the wave of democratization that has begun to sweep through the Middle East. Developments in democratization should not be confused with the democratization of terrorists themselves. Indeed, contact with them, at any level, signals international acceptance of their continued militarization and encourages, rather than fights, terrorism.

The rightful placement of terrorist groups such as Hamas and Hizbollah on lists of outlawed international terrorist organizations is key to ostracizing their representatives and inhibiting their activities. Any other approach, especially political co-option in the naive hope that terrorists will eventually rectify their ways, not only sends the wrong message about international counter-terrorism efforts, but also endangers governing authorities and the lives of innocents around the world.

Having fought terrorism since our inception, Israel is well aware of the dangers and transnational ramifications that are inherent in it. We therefore appreciate international efforts to contain and combat terrorism. Israel has been an active supporter of the Counter-Terrorism Committee. We encourage the Committee to cover fully the wide scope of its mandate, including confronting the dangers of incitement. Furthermore, Israel looks forward to extending our support to the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, and in that context is pleased to note that an Israeli counter- terrorism expert has been included in its work.

The President

I thank the representative of Israel for his kind words addressed to me. I now give the floor to the representative of Peru.

Mr. De Rivero (Peru)

I wish, on behalf of the Government and the people of Peru, to express our condolences and sentiments of solidarity with the Government and the people of the United Kingdom and with the relatives of the victims of the terrorist attacks carried out in London on 7 July. Those criminal acts deserve our deepest condemnation.

Peru, which fought and defeated terrorism from 1980 to 1992, strongly and unequivocally condemns terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, wherever it takes place and whoever commits it. No ideological, political or religious reason can be used as justification by those who carry out, cooperate in or finance terrorist acts.

We all know that terrorism cannot be fought in a conventional war. There is no territory or theatre of operations, because the actors are clandestine. It is an asymmetric struggle, and the way to wage it is, therefore, different.

Based on our own successful fight against terrorism, Peru can state that only through a holistic approach is it possible to combat this scourge effectively. An appropriate legal framework is needed, along with operational capacity in the areas of security and, above all, in intelligence. In that holistic struggle, it is necessary to respect human rights and international law. Firmness in the fight against terrorism also requires firmness in the preservation of civil liberties. The democratic State cannot put itself on the same level with terrorists; that is our experience.

Another long-term element that must be considered as part of this holistic approach is the elimination of the social exclusion and the frustration that lie behind terrorist alienation. Within the framework of this holistic strategy, it is essential that we build structures of inter-State cooperation. We are therefore grateful for the briefings by the Chairs of the three Security Council committees and appreciate the convening of today’s open meeting. I will now make some brief comments on the work of the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) and of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999).

Peru appreciates the efforts made by the Chair of the CTC to give priority attention to the Committee’s role as a facilitator of technical assistance both between States and between them and international organizations.

We also highlight the importance of the CTC’s continued coordination and cooperation with other organs of the United Nations and with international, regional and subregional organizations in order to focus efforts and avoid duplication. In that context, we should respect the different spheres of competence of the various forums and be mindful that recommendations coming from diverse organizations belonging to diverse forums, spheres of competence and situations cannot automatically become universal norms.

With regard to the reports, there are some points that could be considered to improve their effectiveness.

First, delays in the submission of reports, as the Chair of the Committee stated, are to a large extent due to reporting fatigue and lack of capacity. In other words, countries that lack financial resources, experience in the fight against terrorism or the required personnel or that have not been able to adopt specific national legislation must be able to receive the assistance they require to adequately implement resolution 1373 (2001) and to report on those activities to the CTC. It is those deficiencies that must guide the CTC’s cooperation with States. That is important, because the Committee’s main task is to ensure that States have the necessary tools to fight terrorism.

In addition, in connection with reporting fatigue, it would be useful to agree on a timetable for the submission of reports, as set out in paragraph 6 of resolution 1373 (2001). That would help the Committee itself and the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) to duly process the content of the more than 600 reports that have been submitted by States during more than three years.

A second element is following up the reports. It is necessary that the responses and the courses of action taken by the CTC in each case be based on a meticulous and rigorous analysis of the reports and that the specific situation and experience of each country be taken into account. Otherwise, the Committee risks adopting a mistaken approach with respect to the reality in some countries, affecting its contribution to States’ mechanisms to fight terrorism.

Thus Peru agrees that the CTED, the technical support organ of the CTC, must complete its team as soon as possible and become fully operational. In addition, the resulting team must include strategists in the fight against terrorism and specialists in the various areas of that fight. Legal professionals are needed, as are intelligence and police experts with experience in the field. The members of the team, as has been said, must come from different geographic regions and legal traditions and, most important, must have practical experience in fighting terrorism.

It is necessary to overcome the limitations I have mentioned in order to optimize the use of the report system and the specialized activities of the CTED. That way, the CTC will best be able to carry out the mandate entrusted to it by the Security Council.

Before concluding, I would like briefly to refer to the work of the 1267 Committee. Peru hopes that the efforts to incorporate the information from the lists into the Interpol database can be completed as soon as possible. That would exploit the capacity of that main organism for international police cooperation and facilitate the tasks of national authorities.

The adequate functioning of the list system, including the listing and the delisting of individual and entities, continues to require the utmost attention. Respect for due process and the rights of those included on the lists must be considered at all times.

The President

I now give the floor to the representative of Cuba.

Mr. Gala López (Cuba)

My delegation wishes to join the expressions of solidarity with the British people following the bombing attack in London’s public transportation system, which caused the death of dozens of individuals and hundreds of casualties. As expressed by the President of my country in a message to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the people of Cuba, which has been the victim of terrorism for more than four decades, shares the pain of the British people and condemns that unjustifiable attack.

Under the increasing international pressure generated by the accusation by Cuba, and following more than a month of complicit silence, on 17 May 2005 the United States immigration authorities were obliged to detain the terrorist of Cuban origin Luis Faustino Clemente Posada Carriles, who had entered the country illegally and had applied for political asylum on the basis of the services rendered to the United States during more than 40 years as a member of the Central Intelligence Agency and the United States armed forces.

Most appropriately, the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela requested the extradition of the terrorist Posada Carriles so that he could be submitted to trial in that South American country in connection with a heinous crime committed against a civilian aircraft belonging to Cubana de Aviación, which caused the loss of 73 lives and for which he was on trial when, in 1985, he escaped from the Venezuelan prison where he was being held.

My country takes this opportunity to reaffirm its belief that the only right action the United States Government could take is to agree to the extradition requested by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela that, in addition to being in compliance with the relevant norms of international law, is covered by a treaty in force between the two countries.

If the United States Government wants to lend a sliver of credibility to its proclaimed war on terror, it has no option but to proceed to the extradition of a criminal who, it is worth recalling, was the author of numerous other terrorist acts, including a bombing campaign in Havana hotels in 1997 that caused the death of the Italian tourist Fabio Di Celmo. In addition, he has planned numerous attempts on the life of President Fidel Castro, for one of which he was sentenced in Panama, where he was fraudulently pardoned on 26 August 2004 by former President Mireya Moscoso.

Resolution 1373 (2001), adopted by the Council based on a proposal by the United States, clearly establishes, in invoking Chapter VII of the Charter, the obligation of all States to ensure that any person who participates in the financing, planning, preparation or perpetration of terrorist acts or in supporting terrorist acts is brought to justice, as well as to take effective measures to prevent the movement of terrorists and deny refuge not only to terrorists but also to those who protect them.

We hope that the case of the terrorist Luis Posada Carriles does not end up like that of Orlando Bosch Avila and of other self-confessed terrorists of Cuban origin – responsible for plunging dozens of Cuban families into mourning – who live freely in the United States and stroll along the streets of Miami.

We would consider it to be a very serious matter if Washington were to decide to give asylum to Posada Carriles or if it were to adduce sophistic legal arguments to allow him to stay in the United States. That would constitute an affront to all the victims of terrorism throughout the whole world and to their relatives, including the people of the United States themselves.

My Government urges the international community to demand that the United States Government fulfil its obligation to extradite Luis Posada Carriles to Venezuela.

My Government reiterates once again its request to the Counter-Terrorism Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) to proceed to an assessment of the information submitted by my country, in, among others, documents S/2002/15, S/2004/753 and S/2005/341, in the hope that its work will help put an end to the impunity enjoyed on the territory of the United States by those who have carried out, and continue to carry out, terrorist actions against Cuba.

Cuba reaffirms its position of principle against all terrorist acts, methods and practices, in all their forms and manifestations, wherever, whenever, by and against whomever they are committed, including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved.

The President

The next speaker inscribed on my list is the representative of Liechtenstein, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Wenaweser (Liechtenstein)

At the outset, I would like to convey our profound sympathy and compassion to all those affected by the horrendous terrorist attacks that occurred recently in London. We strongly condemn all acts of terrorism, irrespective of their motivation, wherever and by whomever committed. We also reaffirm our commitment to contribute, to the fullest extent, to the international fight against terrorism in all its aspects, including through full cooperation with the relevant United Nations bodies.

We thank the Chairpersons of the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), the Al-Qaida and Taliban sanctions Committee, and the 1540 Committee for their briefings. We appreciate their contribution and the hard work of the experts who are supporting their tasks. Increased coordination between the counter-terrorism Committees of the Security Council can greatly enhance the effectiveness of United Nations activities in this area. In the light of the upcoming renewal of Security Council resolution 1526 (2004), my comments this afternoon will be focussed on the strengthening of the sanctions regime against Al-Qaida and the Taliban.

The Council is currently engaged in informal consultations on a draft resolution to be adopted, as we understand it, by the end of July, which contains a number of suggested improvements to the current sanctions regime based in part on the valuable work of the Monitoring Team. We generally support measures such as better cooperation with Interpol, streamlining of the working methods of the 1267 sanctions Committee and its Monitoring Team, and improved sanctions monitoring. At the same time, we remain convinced that due process, human rights and humanitarian concerns must be addressed in an equally urgent and thorough manner, and that doing so will in effect enhance the implementation, and thus the effectiveness, of targeted sanctions.

As reported by the Monitoring Team, a number of countries have been facing legal challenges in national and international courts against specific measures of sanctions implementation. Some of those have yet to be decided. We wish to mention a recent judgement handed down on 30 June 2005 by the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Bosphorus Airways v. Ireland. While the Court concluded that, in this specific case, the applicant’s right to protection of property had not been violated, it also issued an important caveat: State actions taken in compliance with international legal obligations, such as international sanctions regimes, are justified only as long as the relevant organization protects fundamental human rights, with respect both to their substance and to the mechanisms controlling their observance. Otherwise, there can be circumstances in which the European Convention would have to prevail over other legal obligations.

That judgement makes it clear that there is a real possibility that a State party to the European Convention might find itself in a situation where, by implementing its obligations flowing from a United Nations sanctions regime, it is found in violation of rights protected by the Convention. Such a scenario must be avoided; it can if the Security Council intensifies its work on enhancing the fairness and transparency of procedures for listing, delisting and humanitarian exemptions, and on improving the access of individual applicants to the decision-making body. In that respect, informing individuals and entities of their listing and granting them the possibility of directly submitting to the Committee a request for delisting or humanitarian exemption would be a step in the right direction. In the long run, any regime depriving individuals of their rights will have to include an appeals process involving a judicial or otherwise independent organ in order to comply with international due-process standards.

We recall in that context that we requested in February this year that the list of Member States having made notifications regarding humanitarian exemptions in accordance with resolution 1452 (2002) be made accessible to all Member States, as a straightforward means of improving transparency. That request is still pending before the sanctions Committee.

Current discussions on an improved sanctions regime also deal with the question of which individuals, groups, undertakings and entities can be considered as being “associated with" Al-Qaida for the purpose of listings. This is a welcome exercise that takes into account the structure of Al-Qaida and the nature of the threat it poses. The draft currently under discussion, however, entails the danger that such a definition could become too sweeping and include third parties that have some relationship to those targeted and that might factually contribute, in an inadvertent manner, to terrorist activities. In accordance with our legal understanding, knowledge and intent are indispensable mental elements of criminal liability and must thus be included in such a definition. This would also be in line with international legal standards such as those established by the Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, to which we are a party.

I wish finally to express our hope that Council members will give non-members of the Council ample opportunities, both formal and informal, to contribute to the strengthening of the Council’s counter-terrorism measures in all relevant contexts. The implementation of the Council’s counter-terrorism measures will undoubtedly be more successful if all States concerned are involved in their design.

In that spirit, I thank the President very much for convening today’s meeting.

The President

The next speaker inscribed on my list is the representative of Switzerland, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Maurer (Switzerland)

The most recent acts of terrorism in London, as well as in other parts of the world, which wasted the lives of dozens of innocent civilians and caused injuries to many more, have once again confirmed that the threat of terrorism is far from over. Switzerland condemns all forms of terrorism and terrorist acts and supports the fight against terrorism by all means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law, including human rights and international humanitarian law.

The efforts of the Security Council are an important part of the global fight against terrorism. Switzerland has fully complied with the Council’s counter-terrorism resolutions and has closely cooperated with its Counter-Terrorism Committee and its sanctions committees, and will continue to do so in the future. Combating terrorism is the concern of all States, and it is therefore essential for the Council to have regular exchanges on its strategies and decisions with all members of the United Nations. I therefore express my appreciation to the Chairmen of the three committees for today’s briefings.

The Council is currently reviewing the measures imposed by earlier resolutions concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and associated individuals and entities. In my statement I will focus on the 1267 Committee and share some concerns that Switzerland has with regard to the effectiveness of targeted sanctions as applied today. Security Council targeted financial and travel sanctions against individuals can be a useful instrument in the international community’s efforts to enforce implementation of Security Council decisions. Since 1998, the common efforts of Switzerland, Germany, Sweden and others in the Interlaken, Bonn-Berlin and Stockholm processes have contributed to the further development and refinement of that instrument.

In recent years, however, the scope of targeted sanctions has been extended considerably to loosely defined categories of individuals and entities rather than specific groups of persons. Furthermore, while targeted sanctions are intended to be preventive in nature, they are punitive in their effects, and the rights of individuals under domestic and international law are severely affected. In particular, the application of measures against individuals without any possibility of review or appeal has the real potential to violate individual due process rights guaranteed by relevant instruments of international law. Not surprisingly, the second report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, of February 2005 (S/2005/83, annex), mentioned a number of legal challenges in national and international courts against specific sanctions implementation measures.

The conflict between Security Council resolutions and international human rights law is both harmful and unnecessary. It violates the integrity of the system of international law and it undermines the legitimacy of the Council’s action in general. Switzerland shares the concern of others that, as a result, it will severely compromise the effectiveness of the Council’s anti-terrorism strategy. At the same time, we are convinced that new mechanisms must, and can, be developed that would avoid incompatibility between obligations under international human rights law and Security Council sanctions. In that regard, we welcome the statements and suggestions made by Greece, Denmark and, just a minute ago, Liechtenstein.

We believe that an effective regime of Security Council targeted financial and travel sanctions against individuals and entities needs; first, to apply strict and transparent factual and evidentiary requirements with respect to the listing of individuals and groups; secondly, to guarantee the timely notification of targeted individuals and entities upon their inclusion in a sanctions list; thirdly, to limit the duration of sanctions and their punitive effects; and fourthly, to provide for the right to appeal against the inclusion of individuals and entities in a sanctions list, as well as for binding arbitration by a body of impartial and independent experts.

We recognize that recent sanctions regimes provide improved safeguards with regard to the rights of listed individuals or entities, and we suggest that the relevant counter-terrorism and sanctions committees update older sanctions regimes according to the newer, better standards.

With respect to further improvements in the efficiency of targeted sanctions, Switzerland would welcome opportunities for discussion with the members of the 1267 Committee.

In the ongoing debate on the reform of the Security Council, Switzerland has suggested, among other things, that the Council consider on a case-by-case basis the possibility of including Member States not currently on the Council but with strong interest and expertise in the topic to participate in the work of one or more of the subsidiary bodies. We believe that improving the listing and de-listing procedures would be an excellent opportunity to start such a practice. We suggest that the Council establish a working group with members of the 1267 Committee, other interested Member States and relevant experts from the Secretariat with a mandate to come up with suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the Committee’s listing and de-listing procedures, in particular by avoiding incompatibility between obligations under international human rights law and Security Council sanctions.

The President

The next speaker inscribed on my list is the representative of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Toro Jiménez (Venezuela)

On behalf of the Government and the people of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, we would like to reiterate our heartfelt and categorical repudiation of the terrorist acts recently committed against the British people.

Deliberating and taking decisions on courses of action in areas such as terrorism, which is a crucial item on the agenda of the Organization and of the Council, is fraught with danger and the risk of distortion, unless the guiding principle used to shed light on the truth and reach conclusions is one that provides a historical and holistic perspective. The principle to which I am referring is no other than the historical reconstruction of the process of the emergence of terrorism at the international level and the various stages and manifestations of that phenomenon. By revisiting the past in an examination of history we can assess the period between the last two violent confrontations of the twentieth century — the so-called world wars — in order to identify the emergence of capitalistic, despotic, racist, bellicose, totalitarian, imperialistic and, to varying degrees, genocidal States that were led by demented ideologies in an attempt to not only further subjugate their own peoples but also those on the world’s periphery who had been subsumed in the colonial backwardness of ignorance, political and social exclusion and poverty and who were deprived of the most basic human rights. I am referring to the tragic European and Asian misadventures in National Socialism, fascism and falangism, as well as the Japanese militarism hearkening back to theocracy.

At that stage of the imperialist phase of international monopolistic capitalism, and faced with the uncontainable surge of peoples supported by the actions of the first socialist State, which emerged in 1917, some capitalist States reacted by employing the systematic political use of extreme terror in order to ensure collective obedience through intimidation and threats to life and liberty, thereby suppressing all dissent against their genocidal plans and actions. Nevertheless, at the time of the Second World War, the democratic traditions and movements that had emerged in Europe, the North American continent and other places led to a marshalling of forces that was able to thwart that criminal and suicidal movement against the Western world driven by extremist political agents of monopolistic capitalism.

In the post-war period, from 1945 until the end of the twentieth century, in the context of the historic conflict between capitalism and the principal socialist States and of the bipolar confrontation within the so-called Western world, peoples continued to advance in their key role of breaking the chains of oppression in the process of decolonization. In order to stop the popular advance, the international capitalistic monopoly needed additional financing. To that end, it pursued its exploitation and pillaging of the peoples and resources of marginalized countries in order to test and develop new conventional and unconventional weapons of mass destruction, strengthening its capacities especially in the area of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological weapons targeting the socialist States in particular — its most visible adversaries — as a means of dissuasion, and using dependent countries as the testing grounds of its new weapons of extermination.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the world socialist system opened a brief period of uncertainty in the military and economic policies of the West. The expansion was brought to a temporary halt by the unexpected downfall of the champions of popular rule, in line with the prediction of history’s coming to an end made by Francis Fukuyama, who foresaw that the expansionists would soon identify as new ideological enemies those countries with the most important fossil fuel resources. This was followed by wars against Afghanistan, Iraq and the fragile Palestinian State that was just emerging, as well as the supposed threat posed by Iran, all covered under the so-called clash of civilizations proclaimed by Professor Samuel Huntington. That scenario also explains the attempted coups against the democratic revolutionary Government of our President Hugo Chávez Frías in April and December 2002.

Given the profound and deepening gulf between the States of the G7 — and later, the G8 — and the sufferings of the majority of the peoples of the South, the victims have declared themselves in overt rebellion against and defiance of the lead role of the transnational capitalist monopoly. In the 60 years since the defeat of European Nazism, the Government of the United States and its imperialist allies have assumed the military, political ideological role once played by that movement in the destruction of the marginalized world and are now threatening the very foundations of the biosphere with annihilation. That contemporary manifestation of repression is State terrorism. It has a long history of malfeasance throughout the planet to which the peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America can bear witness. The firm resolve of peoples to stand up to the latest version of State terrorism practised by the United States and its allies is evident in the decision to use apocalyptic weaponry against the courageous resistance of peoples who have bravely sacrificed many lives in repelling the invaders and their abuses.

The United States Senate recently authorized the renewed production of miniature or tactical nuclear weapons, which are said to be more efficiently deadly than the genocidal experiments in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, at a time when popular revolt seems not only to be irreversible, but also to be threatening the two-pronged power of the almighty Pentagon to wage war on two fronts simultaneously. That decision of the United States Senate runs counter to the commitments undertaken by the United States in article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to the very spirit and meaning of that convention, and, obviously, to the United Nations Charter.

As a nation and a people, Venezuelans jointly condemn and repudiate terrorism in all its forms and manifestations as a lethal political instrument for the extermination and intimidation of innocent peoples throughout the world, including by those who justify their actions as collateral effects of foreign invasion. At the same time, we recognize the activities of those who fight foreign invasion and lay down their lives for freedom, self-determination, sovereignty and respect for human rights. In such cases, it is necessary to distinguish clearly between terrorist acts and the legitimate defence of fundamental freedoms under threat.

My delegation also believes that another powerful and effective aspect of terrorism is clearly the ongoing system of lies and manipulation on the part of the national and international media at the service of imperialism, seeking to conceal the truth from peoples who are fighting for self-determination and to forge their destiny in a new world.

We ourselves have suffered from terrorism, such as the criminal assassination by car-bomb of Danilo Anderson, a high-ranking civil servant in the Venezuelan Justice Department, on 18 November 2004. The perpetrators of that crime are being dealt with by the judicial authorities. My delegation also recalls the case, already brought to the attention of this Council, of the action taken by my Government with respect to Luis Posada Carriles, a Venezuelan terrorist who has sought asylum in the United States. That co-author of the bombing of a Cuban aircraft in 1976, in which innocent youth were killed, is a criminal notorious throughout the world and a fugitive from Venezuelan justice. We expect a speedy, positive response from the United States authorities to our request so that justice can be done. In any case, the safe haven being given to the fugitive is in clear violation of paragraph 2 of Security Council resolution 1373 (2001).

The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has scrupulously fulfilled Security Council resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004). In that regard, we have also submitted the relevant mandatory reports in a timely fashion.

Finally, we reiterate what we have said before other United Nations bodies: The solution to terrorism is not more terrorism — in other words, war. We need to dismantle that perverse and criminal mechanism through the constructive, peaceful and just deployment of political means focused on the self-determination of peoples.

The President

The next speaker on my list is the representative of India, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Sen (India)

We thank you, Sir, for scheduling this timely meeting on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts. We also thank the Chairpersons of the Security Council Committees established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004) for their detailed briefings.

The recent horrific attacks in London and elsewhere in the world have shown the emergence of terrorism with a renewed vigour. The seriousness and consistency of the threat posed by terrorism to civilized society everywhere, irrespective of political affiliation or ideology, have been brought home once again. Most important, for our purposes, they have reinforced the urgent need for a global consensus on dealing with terrorism.

To us in India, terrorism is not a new phenomenon. We have suffered from that cross-border-inspired scourge for nearly 25 years. Over 60,000 Indian citizens have lost their lives as a direct result of terrorism. India has consistently maintained that terrorism constitutes one of the most serious threats to peace and security, and that it recognizes no border or boundary, observes no code of conduct or constraints of religion, and is not restrained by humanism or the bounds of civility.

Fifteen days ago, on 5 July, five heavily armed militants, believed to be affiliated with the Lashkar-e-Toiba, stormed the complex in Ayodhya with the intention of spreading mayhem and terror at a sensitive site. Fortunately, owing to the effective intervention of the security forces deployed at the complex, the militants were neutralized at a relatively low cost. However, the intention of the perpetrators of that act of terrorism and their external sponsors, whose involvement has since been proven, was far more sinister — it was to incite the flames of communal conflagration and violence and damage India’s secular and democratic fabric.

In his address to the United States Congress yesterday, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh stated that

“open societies like ours are today threatened more than ever before by the rise of terrorism… Terrorism exploits the freedom our open societies provide to destroy our freedoms. We must fight terrorism wherever it exists, because terrorism anywhere threatens democracy everywhere.”

It is important for States to be held accountable for any lack of compliance with their international obligations, in particular those under international legal instruments and under Security Council resolutions on terrorism. The international community must no longer tolerate resort to double standards, partial cooperation for political ends, tactical ploys, incitement, fundamentalist training and indoctrination and support for or sponsorship of terrorism. If global action against terrorism is to succeed, States that profess cooperation in the war against terrorism while maintaining intact the infrastructure of terrorism should no longer be allowed to act with impunity.

The Counter-Terrorism Committee, assisted by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, must continue to play a major role in assisting States, through capacity-building and by ensuring that they have the means to fight terrorism.

We would like to compliment the 1267 Committee on its work. Unfortunately, we have witnessed in recent months a resurgence of the Al-Qaida and Taliban organizations in Afghanistan, as manifested by the increase in attacks against civilians and security forces along the southern and south-eastern borders of that country. The re-emergence of large, well-armed groups of Al-Qaida and Taliban is a matter of concern for the international community. We believe that the two words “moderate” and “Taliban” are incompatible: an oxymoron. Any attempt to reach out to former Taliban elements should totally exclude individuals or entities on the 1267 Committee’s consolidated list. Any action to the contrary would constitute a clear violation of Chapter-VII resolutions.

The recent listing of Lashkar-E-Tayyiba by the 1267 Committee in its consolidated list of entities, in the Al-Qaida section, has been an important step forward in the fight against terrorism. Lashkar-E-Tayyiba enjoys a clearly defined agenda, hierarchy, sources of funding, protection and infrastructure. Its philosophy has been to merge jihadi education with modern curricula not only to train young students in religious principles but also to make them adept in science and technology, a philosophy that can be put to devastating effect to serve the needs of terrorism. We would encourage the 1267 Committee to continue to be active in securing the listing of more individuals and entities.

India welcomed the adoption of resolution 1566 (2004), which, in our view, represented a logical extension of existing multilateral cooperation on counter-terrorism. In our view, the United Nations should not leave unchallenged or unaddressed claims of moral, political or diplomatic support for terrorism. We hope that the working group established pursuant to resolution 1566 (2004) will earnestly set out to reach an understanding on the ways and means to move the Council’s counter-terrorism agenda forward.

The work of the 1540 Committee remains critical. Recent revelations regarding the extensive international network that facilitated the proliferation of nuclear equipment and technology have amply brought home to us all the danger of the acquisition by terrorists of weapons of mass destruction and the means of their delivery. We urge the 1540 Committee to be more proactive and to move quickly to minimize, through international cooperation and co-option, the possibility of any further proliferation that could pose a threat to international peace and security.

As we have conveyed to the 1540 Committee in our national report, India’s track record on nuclear non-proliferation is impeccable. Even though we have witnessed unchecked proliferation in our own neighbourhood, which has affected our security concerns, India has not only adhered to the existing regulatory framework governing controls over weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, but has proceeded to strengthen those controls. The Weapons of Mass Destruction and Their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, adopted on 6 June 2005, provides overarching and integrated legislation prohibiting unlawful activities in relation to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems. In that context, the Prime Minister of India stated yesterday,

“India, as a responsible nuclear Power, is fully conscious of the immense responsibility that has come with the possession of advanced technology, both civilian and strategic. We have never been, and will never be, a source of proliferation of sensitive technologies”.

While the Security Council has been justifiably proactive on the counter-terrorism agenda, we believe that it is equally important for the general membership of the United Nations to engage on that critical issue. The Secretary-General has called for a comprehensive counter-terrorism strategy to be adopted by heads of State or Government at the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly to be held in September. The international community must endorse his call. My delegation strongly supports the conclusion, during the sixtieth session of the General Assembly, of a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.

There can be no justification for terrorism in any of its forms or manifestations. Those who resort to terror often clothe it in the garb of real or imaginary grievances. No grievance can justify the resort to terror. At the same time, the fight against terror has to be fought within the boundaries laid down by our obligations regarding the rule of law and fundamental freedoms. The Government of India, recognizing the need to continue fighting terror without impinging on essential individual freedoms and liberties, has repealed the Prevention of Terrorism Act.

It is a curious and striking paradox that both Mr. Samuel Huntingdon and certain terrorist groups such as Al-Qaida speak of a clash of civilizations. Our experience is that that paradigm is profoundly mistaken. India’s capacity to deal with the vicissitudes of terrorism can be traced also to its ability to accommodate different cultural and civilizational traditions over time. Historically, the Bhakti and Sufi movements absorbed the best values of thought and civilization. Those traditions have contributed to the emergence of a secular democracy that in itself serves as a bulwark against societal tensions. Not a single Indian has been identified or detained for terrorist acts perpetrated by Al-Qaida or the Taliban anywhere in the world. As the largest democracy, with secularism at its heart, and as the second largest Islamic society in the world, we feel that we do not need any lessons from either the Western democracies or the self-appointed guardians of Islam.

The deliberate weakening of secular democratic forces in many parts of the world over decades left the fundamentalists as the only vehicle for popular dissent. It is only through a strengthening of those secular democratic forces that we can hope to gain the upper hand in the battle against terrorism. At the same time, the brutal anti-humanism, the absence of any realistic programme for social regeneration and, above all, the extreme reactionary vision of the terrorists can only strengthen the reaction.

It is our sincere hope that the United Nations will move forward the international agenda on counter-terrorism through the actions of the General Assembly and the Security Council. The intricate linkages and networks that unite terror groups can be challenged only through concerted international cooperation and efforts. The international community can no longer accept double standards or half measures on the part of States in the fight against terrorism. The United Nations will have to ensure that all States are committed equally to the fight against terrorism.

The President

The next speaker is the representative of Australia, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Dauth (Australia)

I begin by thanking you, Mr. President, for bringing this meeting together today and also by thanking my friends the Chairs of the 1267, 1373 and 1540 Committees for their briefings. Let me demonstrate my thanks in a practical way: by being brief and to the point.

Although, of course, I welcome the opportunity to speak at the Council’s second joint public meeting on this item, as I did at the first such meeting in April, I am very sorry to have to do so against the background of the appalling terrorist attacks in London. Together with all other right-thinking people around the globe, Australians were shocked at the savagery of those attacks. But in equal measure we are full of admiration for the courage and determination displayed by the British Government and the British people.

At such a time, and particularly when the United Nations system is under unprecedented scrutiny, it is appropriate that forums such as this one pay regard to how United Nations bodies and mechanisms are working to meet the challenge of terrorism. Australia welcomes the efforts to date, in particular by the 1267 Committee, to engage more closely with Member States, including through undertaking regional travel. We also appreciated the opportunity earlier this month for our Ambassador for Counter-Terrorism to brief the 1267 Committee on our counter-terrorism cooperation and capacity-building efforts in the Asia-Pacific region. I note with a certain measure of pride that we are only the fourth Member State to take advantage of that opportunity to date. We recall the emphasis placed on capacity-building by the Secretary-General in his comprehensive strategy to fight terrorism, and we encourage all three committees to intensify their engagement with Member States and regional bodies.

The time has come, however, for us to acknowledge that more can, and indeed must, be done. I personally recall — as I know others in this Chamber do — that, in the terrible days immediately after 11 September 2001, we were seized with a grim determination that saw the United Nations become the focal point of the international response. That momentum now risks being lost. Indeed, I would argue that in many respects, that momentum has indeed been lost. We note, for example, that the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate was due to become fully operational by January 2005. It is vital that that important body be able to finalize its staffing arrangements and give full effect to its mandate at the earliest possible date. Similarly, we would stress the need to give effect to calls for better coordination within the United Nations system on counter-terrorism matters generally.

Much work is already being done by States, including my own, at the bilateral and regional levels. That is all to the good. But effective coordination by the United Nations can help ensure that assistance is directed to where it is most needed and to where it will make the most difference. The committees can be assured of Australia’s continued support for those efforts.

The President

The next speaker inscribed on my list is the representative of New Zealand, to whom I give the floor.

Ms. Banks (New Zealand)

I would like to take the opportunity to express once again to the Government of the United Kingdom, and to the families and friends of those who were killed or injured, New Zealand’s heartfelt sympathy regarding the tragic events of 7 July. Those unconscionable terrorist attacks in London have underlined once more the critical importance of the international campaign against terrorism.

I would like to thank the Chairs of the three committees for their briefings this morning and for their important ongoing efforts. The London attacks were a bleak reminder of the vital importance of that work.

One of the key messages in today’s briefings has been the need for cooperation, including regional cooperation. In that regard, I am pleased to advise members that New Zealand hosted an inaugural meeting of the Pacific Working Group on Counter-Terrorism in Auckland in June as part of a broader initiative to strengthen our region’s legal and operational counter-terrorism infrastructure. The meeting also provided a forum in which to discuss the challenges faced by Pacific island countries in complying with international counter-terrorism obligations — a point I would like to come back to later.

With respect to today’s debate, I would like to make three brief comments.

First, there is now a common view within the Security Council and the wider United Nations membership that, having established the tools for fighting terrorism through the Security Council, we need to continually review their effectiveness. New Zealand welcomes those efforts. We note that the Al-Qaida/Taliban sanctions Committee is currently looking at a new draft resolution to sharpen and update sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban. Given the Chapter VII obligations that would flow from such a resolution, we believe it is important that interested Member States be kept informed of, and be given the opportunity to provide input into, the Council’s deliberations. While we do not wish to slow down the work of the Committee, earlier outreach from the Council will help us all when it comes to implementation.

Secondly, we remain of the view that in order to improve the effectiveness and legitimacy of its counter-terrorism efforts, the Security Council must ensure that recognized basic standards of due process are met. We share the concerns raised by others with respect to the current designation process — particularly with respect to listing and de-listing — and we urge the Council to consider amendments to the sanctions regime under resolution 1267 (1999) to meet those concerns. There are a number of proposals in circulation, including those outlined today by the representatives of Denmark, Greece, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. We ask that the Council give them serious consideration.

Thirdly, we would once again draw the Council’s attention to the problems faced by small Member States, including in our own region, in meeting the Council’s considerable reporting requirements. In the recent Pacific counter-terrorism meeting that I just mentioned, it was made very clear that the reality of limited resources and the challenge of competing policy priorities mean that compliance with counter-terrorism remains a significant challenge for many Pacific countries. We welcome the Council’s efforts to address that issue. We very much hope that the enhanced cooperation among the three committees and expert groups now under way will include some discussion of the consolidation of reporting requirements for small Member States. There is a lot that can be done by way of technical assistance, and we urge the Council to take the initiative on that.

For its part, New Zealand, together with Australia and the Pacific Islands Forum secretariat, has established a programme to help Pacific countries to put in place effective counter-terrorism legislation and to plan for counter-terrorism contingencies. New Zealand has offered to work with interested Pacific partners to help them meet their reporting requirements and obligations to the Security Council. We will continue to work closely with Australia and our Pacific partners in those endeavours.

In closing, I would like to take the opportunity to underscore once again our unequivocal support for international counter-terrorism efforts and for the work of the Security Council. We must continue to work together to defeat terrorism, ensuring at the same time that respect for the rule of law and fundamental human rights remains the cornerstone of our efforts.

The President

The next speaker inscribed on my list is the representative of Pakistan, to whom I give the floor.

Mr. Akram (Pakistan)

Permit me at the outset to extend the warm felicitations of the Pakistan delegation to you, Mr. President, and to the delegation of Greece on the skilful manner in which you are guiding the work of the Council. I would also like to express our appreciation to Ambassador De La Sablière and to the French delegation. Ambassador De La Sablière conducted his presidency with his usual grace, understanding and competence.

I would like to join other delegations in thanking the Chairmen of the three committees, who briefed the Council today. We support the efforts of all three committees in promoting greater transparency and dialogue with Member States concerning their respective areas of activity. We hope that the committees will also ensure the involvement and participation of the general membership of the United Nations in their work.

On this occasion, I would like to offer some specific comments on the reports we have received.

First, with regard to the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), we have noted the first country visits. We welcome the emphasis — particularly that of the CTC — on providing counter-terrorism-related technical assistance to States.

Concerning the Al-Qaida/Taliban sanctions Committee, we have noted the views of its Chairman about focusing on the new and growing generation of supporters who may never have left their countries of residence but have embraced the core elements of the Al-Qaida message. Moreover, we believe that sufficient evidence and identifying particulars must accompany new and existing designations on the Committee’s consolidated list. That is necessary in order to meet judicial and legal requirements and to allow national authorities to defend legal challenges to the freezing of assets and other sanctions measures.

With regard to the 1540 Committee, that Committee — whose mandate is to prevent the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by non-State actors, including terrorists — needs to focus on the absence of a definition of various terms used in the resolution and on the absence of agreed international standards to assess actions taken by Member States to implement the resolution.

The Committee also has to take into account the different levels of State capacity to implement its provisions and it should ensure that it does not infringe upon, erode the authority of, or duplicate or complicate the work of, established treaty regimes and international bodies established under those treaties. In this context, it will need to be taken into account that different States have a differentiated nature of obligations under various treaties.

I would like to join others in expressing our solidarity with the victims and families of those affected by the recent terrorist incidents, particularly in the United Kingdom and Turkey. We strongly condemn such acts of terrorism and reiterate our commitment to fighting this menace in all its forms and manifestations.

Geography and history have combined to present Pakistan with a special challenge and a special role in combating terrorism. Pakistan’s commitment to the campaign against terrorism is clear, present, tangible and visible. In a recent statement at the National Youth Convention, President Musharraf made an appeal to “stand up and launch a jihad against extremism for peace, brotherhood and unity in the society and for knowledge, progress and poverty alleviation”.

Pakistan has taken a number of measures on the domestic front. For the first time in history, our armed forces have carried out operations, which are still ongoing, in the tribal areas along our border with Afghanistan. We have suffered over 300 casualties in this operation. We have been able to capture or extradite more than 600 terrorists, including key operatives of Al-Qaida.

Our Government is also engaged in an active and direct campaign to eradicate extremism from our society. This campaign includes the reform of the madrasas, a small fraction of which have preached extremist views. President Musharraf will outline our comprehensive efforts tomorrow in an address to the nation.

The challenge of terrorism is both local and global. All those who have confronted terrorism and extremism know full well that success requires sustained and comprehensive efforts encompassing police action, societal change and creation of economic opportunities, as well as the solution of the political issues that provide the excuse and the oxygen to the terrorists.

The responsibilities to address terrorism are, therefore, both national and international. The role of the United Nations is central and critical. Within the United Nations, and especially through the three committees reporting today, the international community is creating an international legal regime to counter all forms of terrorism. The deliberate killing or maiming of civilians is not justifiable. All acts of terrorism are condemnable, whether committed by an individual, a non-State actor or a State.

The absence of a definition of terrorism should not hold up action against terrorism. At the same time, we must ensure that counter-terrorism measures have built-in safeguards to uphold human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right of peoples to self-determination.

There can be no basis for the exclusion of State terrorism — that is, the perpetration of sustained violence and brutality by a State against an innocent civilian population whose only crime is its opposition to foreign occupation and the denial of the right of self-determination. Nor can States conducting such terrorist acts against civilian populations be allowed to portray the resistance of these legitimate movements as terrorism.

We support the Secretary-General’s initiative for a comprehensive counter-terrorism strategy. This must include measures to address the root of the problem. Root causes do not justify terrorism, but they do explain it, and understanding of the causes of terrorism is essential to success against this gruesome and unacceptable tactic. Those causes include political and economic injustices, festering international disputes, foreign occupation and denial of the right of peoples to self-determination, as well as cultural, social, economic and political marginalization and alienation. The essence of President Musharraf’s strategy for enlightened moderation is to address the causes of terrorism at the root and comprehensively eradicate them.

The perception of being disadvantaged, and even deliberately discriminated against as a faith and culture, results in frictions within societies and often strengthens extremist forces. Promoting greater mutual understanding among all religions and cultures is now a political and a moral imperative. We must remove misunderstandings, especially deliberately propagated negative caricatures such as some we have heard here today. It is important to emphasize that the vast majority of the adherents of any faith, especially Islam, are peaceful, tolerant, honest, just and caring people. Those who hold militant views are a small minority, and those who act on those militant views are an even smaller minority.

The central message of all religions is almost identical. The root causes of friction between cultures and civilizations are not primarily religious differences, but mostly competing political and economic interests and misunderstandings. We therefore strongly support the Spanish initiative for an alliance of civilizations.

The President

I thank the representative of Pakistan for his kind words addressed to me and to the Greek delegation.

There are no more speakers inscribed on my list.

I have been authorized to make the following statement on behalf of the Security Council:

“The Security Council reaffirms that terrorism in all its forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomsoever committed. The Security Council reiterates its condemnation of the Al-Qaida network and other terrorist groups for ongoing and multiple criminal terrorist acts aimed at causing death and destruction of property and undermining stability. The Security Council also reaffirms that proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery, constitutes a threat to international peace and security and recalls its grave concern about the risk posed by non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery.

“The Security Council reiterates its call on all Member States to become parties to all 12 international conventions against terrorism and in this context draws attention to the treaty event being held in New York in September, and encourages Member States to take that opportunity also to sign the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. The Security Council calls on Member States to cooperate on an expedited basis to resolve all outstanding issues with a view to adopting the draft comprehensive convention on international terrorism.

“The Security Council urges all States to cooperate to bring to justice, in accordance with the principle of extradite or prosecute, the perpetrators, organizers and sponsors of acts of terrorism. Recent events, as condemned by the Security Council in resolution 1611 (2005) and S/PRST/2005/29, stress the urgency and necessity of redoubling efforts to combat terrorism.

“The Security Council welcomes the briefings by the Chairmen of the Al Qaida/Taliban sanctions Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999), the Counter-Terrorism Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) and the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004) on the work of the three Committees. The Security Council reaffirms the importance and the urgency it attaches to the implementation of the provisions of the resolutions relevant to the three Committees as well as the fulfilment of the mandates of the three Committees. The Security Council therefore strongly encourages Member States as well as the respective Committees to redouble their efforts to seek ways to further strengthen the implementation of resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004), in accordance with the provisions of these and other relevant resolutions.

“The Security Council reaffirms its call for enhanced cooperation among the three Committees, as well as their respective groups of experts, in monitoring States’ implementation of the provisions of the relevant Security Council resolutions, with due respect for their different mandates, including through enhanced information sharing, coordinated response to late submission of States’ reports to the three Committees, and other issues of relevance to all the three Committees. The Security Council also invites the three Committees to continue cooperation with the working group established pursuant to resolution 1566 (2004).

“The Security Council urges Member States to redouble their efforts to implement the provisions of the resolutions relevant to the three Committees. While reaffirming that the responsibility for implementing the provisions of these resolutions rests with the States, the Security Council encourages States to seek the necessary assistance to ensure that the necessary capacity to implement the resolutions is available.

“The Security Council reiterates that relevant international, regional and subregional organizations can play a crucial role in supporting the goals of these resolutions, raising awareness of their importance, and helping their members implement them. The Security Council encourages such organizations, as or when proposed by the relevant Committee, where appropriate, to provide the necessary technical assistance. Moreover, the Security Council encourages its Counter-Terrorism Committee, Al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions Committee, and, when appropriate, its 1540 Committee, as well as relevant organizations, to enhance cooperation with a view to identifying, promoting, and developing, as appropriate, best practices to provide clarity and guidance to States on implementation of the provisions of the relevant resolutions.

“The Security Council encourages Member States in a position to do so to make technical assistance available on a priority basis.

“The Security Council invites the three Committees to continue reporting on their activities at regular intervals and, where appropriate, in a coordinated manner.”

This statement will be issued as a document of the Security Council under the symbol S/PRST/2005/34.

The Security Council has thus concluded the present stage of its consideration of the item on its agenda.

The meeting rose at 4.45 p.m.
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